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11 February 2021
Back in the 1930s, after World War II, fishermen introduced a new strategy to catch fish by approaching their natural habitats (usually the seabed) with pole spears, unlike other techniques where the prey approaches an angler. That's how Spearfishing came into existence, and with time, it has been revolutionizing with the involvement of equipment including spear guns, sling spears, and a variety of high tech diving tools.
Shark, Tuna, Snapper, Swordfish, and almost any fish in the sea can be spear anglers target prey, but that's not the case with freshwater species. Regulations for freshwater species may vary with the place you are residing in; however, you may get your hands on limited fish in lakes, rivers, and the like, including Bass, Salmon, and maybe some Carp and Catfish.
Depending upon the way you wish to do Spearfishing, i.e., in the shallow water, through scuba diving, or free dive, you could efficiently purchase the appropriate fishing gear for such a technique (some of which include a diving mask, suit, spear, fins, and snorkels). If you have a limited budget with basic level skills, shallow water spearfishing can undoubtedly become your best option. But if you have already mastered the art of equalizing internal pressure in your ear (as is done while flying on an airplane by holding your nose and trying to blow air outside until hearing a pop slowly), and can hold your breath for a little longer when diving, you are ready to go freedive Spearfishing. As for the third option, it will cost you more as opposed to the other two since it'll additionally require scuba diving gear along with Spearfishing.
Regarding the locations you may look up to for Spearfishing, almost all saltwater spots are approachable as long as you follow specific public safety rules and have the proper gear. However, in the case of freshwater sources, you may have to check your country's/states regulation on which fish you could hunt and vice versa.
Fun fact: In most of the countries of the Caribbean and European origin, Spearfishing with scuba diving gear is illegal, but not specifically in the United States.